Archive
2021, Volume 9
2020, Volume 8
2019, Volume 7
2018, Volume 6
2017, Volume 5
2016, Volume 4
2015, Volume 3
2014, Volume 2
2013, Volume 1
Volume 9 , Issue 6 , December 2021 , Pages: 162 - 172
Dietary Fiber, Gut Microbiota, Short-Chain Fatty Acids, and Host Metabolism
Linyue Hou, Department of Modern Agriculture, Zunyi Vocational and Technical College, Zunyi, China
Yuneng Yang, Department of Modern Agriculture, Zunyi Vocational and Technical College, Zunyi, China
Baosheng Sun, Department of Modern Agriculture, Zunyi Vocational and Technical College, Zunyi, China
Youlin Jing, Department of Modern Agriculture, Zunyi Vocational and Technical College, Zunyi, China
Weixi Deng, Department of Modern Agriculture, Zunyi Vocational and Technical College, Zunyi, China
Received: Oct. 13, 2021;       Accepted: Nov. 5, 2021;       Published: Nov. 12, 2021
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.20210906.12        View        Downloads  
Abstract
With the rapid development of gut microbiological research and high-throughput sequencing technology, we have gained a better understanding of the effects of the gut microbiota and its metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on the metabolism of hosts. This effect was found closely related with the consumed dietary fiber by hosts. Dietary fiber has been proven to be very important for hosts. However, hosts such as human, chickens and other monogastric animals cannot digest dietary fiber due to a lack of endogenous fiber-degrading enzymes; therefore, they must rely on gut microorganisms who own endogenous fiber-degrading enzymes such as carbohydrate-active enZymes (CAZymes) encoded by gene. Excellent fiber-degrading bacteria include members of Bacteroidetes phylum such as Bacteroides and Prevotella and members of Firmicutes phylum including Ruminococcus, Fibrobacter, Butyrivibrio, Ruminiclostridium and so on. These fiber-degrading bacteria degrade fiber into monosaccharides via different degrading mechanisms. For instance, Bacteroidetes degrade a dozen kinds of plant fiber using its unique arm-polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL). In contrast to Bacteroidetes, members of the Firmicutes use gram-positive PULs (gp PULs) to process fiber. Some members of the Firmicutes can degrade cellulose and hemicellulose through the cellulosome pathway. And then some oligosaccharides and glucose produced by dietary fiber degradation can be used as carbon and energy sources for microbial growth, thus increasing the diversity of microorganisms. Dietary fiber is the substrate of gut microorganisms. The left monosaccharides are fermented into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by SCFA-producing bacteria including Bifidobacterium, Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium and so on via different pathways. SCFAs mainly include acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFAs can further regulate the host's metabolism including energy metabolism, host appetite, liver metabolism and the glucose balance via SCFA receptors including GPR41 and GPR43 or other mechanisms. Therefore, gut microorganisms are also called our “second genome” or “forgotten organs”. In this paper, we provide an overview of the interactions among dietary fiber, gut microbiota, SCFAs and host metabolism.
Keywords
Dietary Fiber, Gut Microbiota, Short-Chain Fatty Acid, Host Metabolism
To cite this article
Linyue Hou, Yuneng Yang, Baosheng Sun, Youlin Jing, Weixi Deng, Dietary Fiber, Gut Microbiota, Short-Chain Fatty Acids, and Host Metabolism, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 6, 2021, pp. 162-172. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20210906.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2021 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[ 1 ]
Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Consortium. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome [J]. Nature, 2012, 486 (7402): 207-214.
[ 2 ]
Qin J, Li R, Raes J, et al. A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing [J]. Nature, 2010, 464 (7285): 59-65.
[ 3 ]
Moeller A H, Li Y, Ngole E M, et al. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution [J]. PNAS, 2014, 111 (46): 16431-16435.
[ 4 ]
Erica D S, Samuel A S, Mikhail T, et al. Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations [J]. Nature, 2016, 529 (7585): 212-215.
[ 5 ]
Eric C M. Fibre for the future [J]. Nature, 2016, 529 (7585): 158-159.
[ 6 ]
Edward C D, Jens W. The fiber gap and the disappearing gut microbiome: implications for human nutrition [J]. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2016, 27 (5): 239-242.
[ 7 ]
Mahesh S D, Anna M S, Nicole M K, et al. A dietary fiber-deprived gut microbiota degrades the colonic mucus barrier and enhances pathogen susceptibility [J]. Cell, 2016, 167 (5): 1339–1353.
[ 8 ]
Larsen N, Vogensen F K, Vanden Berg F W J, et al. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults [J]. Plos One, 2010, 5 (2): e9085.
[ 9 ]
Xu J, Bjursell M K, Himrod J, et al. A genomic view of the human-Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron symbiosis [J]. Science, 2003, 299 (5615): 2074–2076.
[ 10 ]
Kui W, Gabriel V P, Janaina J V C, et al. Bacteroides intestinalis DSM 17393, a member of the human colonic microbiome, upregulates multiple endoxylanases during growth on xylan [J]. Scientific Reports, 2016, 6 (34360): 1-11.
[ 11 ]
Backhed F, Ley R E, Sonnenburg J L, et al. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine [J]. Science, 2005, 307 (5717): 1915–1920.
[ 12 ]
Luis A S, Briggs J, Zhang X A, et al. Dietary pectic glycans are degraded by coordinated enzyme pathways in human colonic Bacteroides [J]. Nature Microbiology, 2017, 3 (2): 210-219.
[ 13 ]
Koropatkin N M, Cameron E A, Martens E C. How glycan metabolism shapes the human gut microbiota [J]. Nature Reviwes Microbiology, 2012, 10 (5): 323–335.
[ 14 ]
Wexler, Aaron G, Andrew L. An insider’s perspective: Bacteroides as a window into the microbiome [J]. Nature Microbiology, 2017, 2 (5): 17026.
[ 15 ]
Seth R N, Kevin R, Foster L E. Comstock. The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota [J]. Nature, 2016, 533 (7602): 255–259.
[ 16 ]
Justin L S, Fredrik B. Diet–microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism [J]. Nature, 2016, 535 (7610): 56-64.
[ 17 ]
Paul I C, Falk H, Manimozhiyan A, et al. Enterotypes in the landscape of gut microbial community composition [J]. Nature Microbiology, 2018, 3 (1): 8–16.
[ 18 ]
Gorvitovskaia A, Holmes S. P, Huse S. M. Interpreting Prevotella and Bacteroides as biomarkers of diet and lifestyle [J]. Microbiome, 2016, 4 (1): 15.
[ 19 ]
Tingting C, Wenmin L, Chenhong Z, et al. Fiber-utilizing capacity varies in Prevotella-versus Bacteroides-dominated gut microbiota [J]. Scientific Reports, 2017, 7 (1): 2594.
[ 20 ]
Carlotta D F, Duccio C, Monica D P, et al. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa [J]. PNAS, 2010, 107 (33): 14691–14696.
[ 21 ]
Xiaofan W, Tsungcheng T, Feilong D, et al. Longitudinal investigation of the swine gut microbiome from birth to market reveals stage and growth performance associated bacteria [J]. Microbiome, 2019, 7 (109): 1-1.
[ 22 ]
De Vuyst L, Moens F, Selak M, et al. Summer Meeting 2013: growth and physiology of bifidobacteria [J]. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2014, 116 (3): 477–491.
[ 23 ]
Shinkai T, Kobayashi Y. Localization of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria on plant fibrous material as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and real time PCR [J]. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2006, 73 (5): 1646–1652.
[ 24 ]
Suen G, Weimer P J, Stevenson D M, et al. The complete genome sequence of Fibrobacter succinogenes s85 reveals a cellulolytic and metabolic specialist [J]. Plos One, 2011, 6 (4): e18814.
[ 25 ]
Dehority B A. Microbial ecology of cell wall fermentation. In: Jung H. G, Buxton D. R, Hatfield R. D, Ralph, J. (Eds.), Forage cell wall structure and digestibility [J]. Soil Science Society of America Inc, Madison, WI, pp. 1993, 425–453.
[ 26 ]
Denis O K, Stuart E D, Roderick I M, et al. Opportunities to improve fiber degradation in the rumen: microbiology, ecology and genomics [J]. Fems Microbiology Reviews, 2003, 27 (5): 663-693.
[ 27 ]
Herbert J, Strobel. Pentose transport by the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens [J]. Fems Microbiology Letters, 1994, 122 (3): 217-222.
[ 28 ]
Jude J B, Jonathan C D, Fiona Y S K, et al. Carbohydrate transporting membrane proteins of the rumenbacterium, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus [J]. Journal of Proteomics, 2012, 75 (11): 3138–3144.
[ 29 ]
Cotta M, Forster R. The family Lachnospiraceae, including the genera Butyrivibrio, Lachnospira and Roseburia [J]. Prokaryotes, 2006, 190 (2): 1002–1021.
[ 30 ]
Akinosho H, Yee K, Close D, et al. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications [J]. Front. Chem, 2014, 2 (66): 1-18.
[ 31 ]
Taku O, Makiko S, Tetsuya K, et al. Recombinant cellulolytic or xylanolytic complex comprising the full-length scaffolding protein RjCipA and cellulase RjCel5B or xylanase RjXyn10C of Ruminiclostridium josui [J]. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 2017, 97: 63–70.
[ 32 ]
Martens E C, Chiang H C, Gordon J I. Mucosal glycan foraging enhances fitness and transmission of a saccharolytic human gut bacterial symbiont [J]. Cell Host Microbe, 2008, 4 (5): 447–457.
[ 33 ]
Kaoutari A E, Armougom F, Gordon J I, et al. The abundance and variety of carbohydrateactive enzymes in the human gut microbiota [J]. Nature Reviwes Microbiology. 2013, 11 (7): 497–504.
[ 34 ]
Abdessamad El Kaoutari, Fabrice Armougom, Jeffrey I. Gordon, et al. The abundance and variety of carbohydrate-active enzymes in the human gut microbiota [J]. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2013, 11 (7): 1-9.
[ 35 ]
Lifeng Z, Qi W, Jiayin D, et al. Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the giant panda gut microbiome [J]. PANS, 2011, 108 (43): 17714–17719.
[ 36 ]
Harry J F, Edward A B, Marco T R, et al. Polysaccharide utilization by gut bacteria: potential for new insights from genomic analysis [J]. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2008, 6 (2): 121-131.
[ 37 ]
Yanping Z, Michael d L suits, rew J thompson, et al. Mechanistic insights into a Ca2+-dependent family of α-mannosidases in a human gut symbiont [J]. Nature Chemicalbiology, 2010, 6 (2): 125-132.
[ 38 ]
Cantarel B L, Coutinho P M, Rancurel C, et al. The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for glycogenomics [J]. Nucleic Acids Research, 2009, 37 (Database): D233-D238.
[ 39 ]
Martens E C, Lowe E C, Chiang H, et al. Recognition and degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides by two human gut symbionts [J]. PLoS Biology, 2011, 9 (12): e1001221.
[ 40 ]
Terrapon N, Lombard V, Gilbert H J, et al. Automatic prediction of polysaccharide utilization loci in Bacteroidetes species [J]. Bioinformatics, 2015, 31 (5): 647-655.
[ 41 ]
Anderson K L, Salyers A A. Genetic evidence thatouter membrane binding of starch is required for starch utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron [J]. Journal of Bacteriology, 1989, 171 (6): 3199-3204.
[ 42 ]
Nathan D, Schwalm, Eduardo A G. Navigating the gut buffet: control of polysaccharide utilization in Bacteroides spp [J]. Trends in Microbiology, 2011, 25 (12): 1005-1015.
[ 43 ]
Tauzin A S, Kwiatkowski K J, Orlovsky N I, et al. Molecular dissection of xyloglucan recognition in a prominent human gut symbiont [J]. Microbiology, 2016, 7 (2): e02134-15.
[ 44 ]
Sonnenburg E D, Zheng H, Joglekar P, et al. Specificity of polysaccharide use in intestinal Bacteroides species determines diet-induced microbiota alterations [J]. Cell, 2010, 141 (7): 1241–1252.
[ 45 ]
Johan L, Theresa E R, Glyn R H, et al. A discrete genetic locus confers xyloglucan metabolism in select human gut Bacteroidetes [J]. Nature, 2014, 506 (27): 498-502.
[ 46 ]
Glenwright A J, Pothula K R, Bhamidimarri S P, et al. Structural basis for nutrient acquisition by dominant members of the human gut microbiota [J]. Nature, 2017, 541 (7637): 407-411.
[ 47 ]
Goh Y J, Klaenhammer T R. Genetic mechanisms of prebiotic oligosaccharide metabolism in probiotic microbes [J]. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 2015, 6 (1): 137–156.
[ 48 ]
Maria L L, Morten E, Christopher W, et al. Differential bacterial capture and transport preferences facilitate co-growth on dietary xylan in the human gut [J]. Nature Microbiology, 2018, 3 (5): 570-580.
[ 49 ]
Barrangou R, Altermann E, Hutkins R, et al. Functional and comparative genomic analyses of an operon involved in fructooligosaccharide utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus [J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2003, 100 (15): 8957–8962.
[ 50 ]
Cockburn D W, Koropatkin N M. Polysaccharide degradation by the intestinal microbiota and its influence on human health and disease [J]. Journal of Molecular Biology, 2016, 428 (16): 3230–3252.
[ 51 ]
Saier M H. Families of transmembrane sugar transport proteins [J]. molecular microbiology, 2000, 35 (4): 699–710.
[ 52 ]
Lior A, Edward A. Bayer and Sarah Moraïs. Cellulosomes: bacterial nanomachines for dismantling plant polysaccharides [J]. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2016, 15 (2): 1-13.
[ 53 ]
Ragsdale S W, Pierce E. Acetogenesis and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of CO2 fixation [J]. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2008, 1784 (12): 1873–1898.
[ 54 ]
Rey F E, Faith J J, Bain J, et al. Dissecting the in vivo metabolic potential of two human gut acetogens [J]. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010, 285 (29): 22082-22090.
[ 55 ]
Xiaojing L, Daniel E C, Ahmad A C, et al. Acetate production from glucose and coupling to mitochondrial metabolism in mammals [J]. Cell, 2018, 175 (2): 502-513.
[ 56 ]
Muriel D, Johan E T, Van H V. Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut microbiota [J]. Trends in Microbiology, 2015, 23 (6): 354-366.
[ 57 ]
Hetzel M, Brock M, Selmer T, et al. Acryloyl-CoA reductase from Clostridium propionicum. An enzyme complex of propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and electron-transferring flavoprotein [J]. European. Journal. Biochemistry, 2003, 270 (5): 902–910.
[ 58 ]
Louis P, Scott K P, Duncan S H, et al. Understanding the effects of diet on bacterial metabolism in the large intestine [J]. Journal of Applied. Microbiology, 2007, 102 (5): 1197–1208.
[ 59 ]
Hilpert W, Dimroth P. Conversion of the chemical energy of methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylation into a Na+ gradient [J]. Nature, 1984, 296 (5857): 584-585.
[ 60 ]
Thierry A, Deutsch S M, Falentin H, et al. New insights into physiology and metabolism of Propionibacterium freudenreichii [J]. International journal of food microbiology, 2011, 149 (1): 19-27.
[ 61 ]
Louis P, Duncan S H, McCrae S I, et al. Restricted distribution of the butyrate kinase pathway among butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon [J]. Journal of Bacteriology, 2004, 186 (7): 2099–2106.
[ 62 ]
Louis P, Young P, Holtrop G, et al. Diversity of human colonic butyrate-producing bacteria revealed by analysis of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene [J]. Environ Microbiol, 2010, 12, 304–314.
[ 63 ]
Ara K, Filipe D V, Petia K D, et al. From dietary fiber to host physiology: short-chain fatty acids as key bacterial metabolites [J]. Cell, 2016, 165 (6): 1332-1345
[ 64 ]
Rajesh J, Julio F D, Berrocoso. Dietary fiber and protein fermentation in the intestine of swine and their interactive effects on gut health and on the environment: a review [J]. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2016, 212 (): 18–26.
[ 65 ]
Susan E P, Sylvia H D, Georgina L H, et al. The microbiology of butyrate formation in the human colon [J]. Fems Microbiology Letters, 2002, 217 (2): 133-139.
[ 66 ]
Munoz-Tamayo R, Laroche B, Walter E, et al. Kinetic modeling of lactate utilization and butyrate production by key human colonic bacterial species [J]. Fems Microbiology Ecology, 2011, 76 (3): 615–624.
[ 67 ]
Duncan S H, Hold G L, Harmsen H J, et al. Growth requirements and fermentation products of Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and a pro-posal to reclassify it as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. Nov [J]. INT J SYST EVOL MICR, 2002, 52 (6): 2141-2146.
[ 68 ]
Duncan S H, Hold G L, Barcenilla A, et al. Roseburia intestinalis sp. Nov a novel saccharolytic, butyrate-producing bacterium from human faeces [J]. INT J SYST EVOL MICR, 2002, 52 (5): 1615-1620.
[ 69 ]
Hong P S, Sang I L, Ricke S C, et al. Microbial populations in naked neck chicken ceca raised on pasture flock fed with commercial yeast cell wall prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform [J]. Plos One, 2016, 11 (3): e0151944.
[ 70 ]
Turroni F, Milani C, Duranti S A, et al. Bifidobacteria and the infant gut: an example of co-evolution and natural selection [J]. Celularl and Molecular Life Sciences, 2018, 75 (1): 103-18.
[ 71 ]
Macfarlane G T, Gibson G R, Beatty E, et al. Estimation of short-chain fatty acid production from protein by human intestinal bacteria based on branched-chain fatty acid measurements [J]. Fems Microbiology Letters, 1992, 101 (2): 81–88.
[ 72 ]
Wu G D, Chen J, Hoffmann C, et al. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes [J]. Science, 2011, 334 (602): 105-108.
[ 73 ]
Allison M J, Bryant M P. Metabolic function of branched-chain volatile fatty acids, growth factors for rumino-coocci [J]. Journal of Dairy Science, 1962, 83 (5): 1084-1093.
[ 74 ]
Julie A K M, Benjamin H M, Alexandros P, et al. Inhibiting growth of Clostridioides difficile by restoring valerate, produced by the intestinal microbiota [J]. Gastroenterology, 2018, 155 (5): 1495-1507.
[ 75 ]
Gerhart D Z, Leino R L, Drewes L R. Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 in rat retina [J]. Neuroscience, 1999, 92 (1): 1-388.
[ 76 ]
Le P E, Loison C, Struyf S, et al. Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation [J]. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2003, 278 (28): 25481–25489.
[ 77 ]
Macia L, Tan J, Vieira A T, et al. Metabolite-sensing receptors GPR43 and GPR109A facilitate dietary fibre-induced gut homeostasis through regulation of the inflammasome [J]. Nature Communications, 2015, 6: 6734.
[ 78 ]
Valentina T, Fredrik B. Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism [J]. Nature, 2012, 489 (7415): 242-249.
[ 79 ]
Józefiak, A. Rutkowski, S. A. Martin. Carbohydrate fermentation in the avian ceca: a review [J]. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2004, 113 (1-4): 1–15
[ 80 ]
Swart D, Mackie R I, Hayes J P. Influence of live mass, rate of passage and site of digestion on energy-metabolism and fiber digestion in the ostrich (struthio-camelus var domesticus) [J]. South African Journal of Animal Science, 1993, 23 (5): 119-126.
[ 81 ]
Frost G S, Walton G E, Swann J R, et al. Impacts of plant-based foods in ancestral hominin diets on the metabolism and function of gut microbiota in vitro [J]. MBio, 2014, 5 (3): e00853–14
[ 82 ]
Anderson J W, Bridges S R. Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of plant fiber affect glucose metabolism of isolated rat hepatocytes [J]. Proceeding of Society Experimental Biology Medicine, 1984, 177 (1): 372–376.
[ 83 ]
Roediger W E. Utilization of nutrients by isolated epithelial cells of the rat colon [J]. Gastroenterology, 1982, 83 (2): 424–429.
[ 84 ]
Donohoe D. R, Garge N, Zhang X, et al. The microbiome and butyrate regulate energy metabolism and autophagy in the mammalian colon [J]. Cell Metabolism, 2011, 13 (5): 517–526.
[ 85 ]
Roediger W E. Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man [J]. Gut, 1980, 21 (9): 793–798.
[ 86 ]
Herd R M, Dawson T J. Fiber digestion in the emu, Dramaius novaehollandiae, a large ratite bird with a simple gut and high rates of passage [J]. Physiological Zoology, 1984, 57 (1): 70–84.
[ 87 ]
Kimura I, Inoue D, Maeda T, et al. Short-chain fatty acids and ketones directly regulate sympathetic nervous system via G protein coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) [J]. PNAS, 2011, 108 (19): 8030–8035.
[ 88 ]
Cani P D, Dewever C, Delzenne N M. Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats [J]. British Journal of Nutrition, 2004, 92, 521–526.
[ 89 ]
Delzenne N M, Cani P D, Daubioul C, et al. Impact of inulin and oligofructose on gastrointestinal peptides J]. British Journal of Nutrition, 2005, 93 (Suppl 1): S157–S161.
[ 90 ]
Katie C C, Steven A K, David J. Mangelsdorf. Snapshot: hormones of the gastrointestinal tract [J]. Cell, 2014, 159 (6): 1478-1478e1.
[ 91 ]
Tazoe H. Expression of short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR41 in the human colon [J]. Biomed Research international, 2009, 30 (3): 149–156.
[ 92 ]
Tolhurst G. Short-chain fatty acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion via the G-protein-coupled receptor FFAR2 [J]. Diabetes, 2012, 61 (2): 364–371.
[ 93 ]
Psichas A. The short chain fatty acid propionate stimulates GLP-1 and PYY secretion via free fatty acid receptor 2 in rodents [J]. International Journal of Obesity (Lond.), 2015, 39 (3), 424–429.
[ 94 ]
Cani, Patrice D, Van Hul, et al. Microbial regulation of organismal energy homeostasis [J]. Nature Metabolism, 2019, 1 (1): 34-46.
[ 95 ]
Kim, Ki-Suk, Seeley, et al. Signalling from the periphery to the brain that regulates energy homeostasis [J]. Nature Reviews Neuroence, 2018, 19 (4): 185-196.
[ 96 ]
Lucy B, Alexander V, Anastasia T, et al. Fermentable carbohydrate stimulates FFAR2-dependent colonic PYY cell expansion to increase satiety [J]. Molecular Metabolism, 2017, 6 (1): 48-60.
[ 97 ]
Myers M G, Olson D P. SnapShot: neural pathways that control feeding [J]. Cell Metabolism. 2014, 19, 732–732. e1.
[ 98 ]
Marston O J, Garfield A S, Heisler L K. Role of central serotonin and melanocortin systems in the control of energy balance [J]. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, 660 (1): 70–79.
[ 99 ]
Burmeister M A. The hypothalamic glucagon‑like peptide 1 receptor is sufficient but not necessary for the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis in mice [J]. Diabetes, 2017, 66 (2): 372–384.
[ 100 ]
Gary F, Michelle L S, Sahuri-Arisoylu M, et al. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism [J]. Nature communications, 2014, 5 (3611): 1-11.
[ 101 ]
Rachel J P, Peng L, Natasha A B, et al. Acetate mediates a microbiome–brain–β-cell axis to promote metabolic syndrome [J]. Nature, 2016, 534 (7606): 213-217.
[ 102 ]
Al-Lahham S, Peppelenbosch M P, Roelofsen H, et al. Biological effects of propionate in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms [J]. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Biomembranes, 2010, 1801 (11): 1175–1183.
[ 103 ]
Todesco T, Rao A V, Bosello O, et al. Propionate lowers blood glucose and alters lipid metabolism in healthy subjects [J]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54 (5): 860-865.
[ 104 ]
Jakobsdottir G, Xu J, Molin G, et al. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects [J]. Plos One, 2013, 8 (11): e80476.
[ 105 ]
Emanuel E C, Johan W J, Ellen E B. Short-chain fatty acids in control of body weight and insulin sensitivity [J]. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 2015, 11 (10): 577-591.
[ 106 ]
De V F, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, Goncalves D, et al. Microbiota-generated metabolites promote metabolic benefits via gut-brain neural circuits [J]. Cell, 2014, 156 (1-2): 84-96.
Browse Journals by Subject