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American Journal of Life Sciences

(ISSN Online: 2328-5737)

About the Special Issue

A Special Issue of American Journal of Life Sciences (ISSN Online 2328-5737)

Deadline for manuscript submissions: Dec. 30, 2014

The aim of science in the twenty first century, arguably, is to enhance the depend on safe methods of disease management rather than pesticides in order to obtain safe plant products.

Egyptian clover is the most perennial forage crop grown in Egypt and diseases are the most important constrains. Clover rot is the important disease all over the world including Egypt. The disease infects the crown and roots causing crown and stem-rot and the new growth wilts, dies, and may be covered with fungus growth. Hard, black, fungus bodies (sclerotia) are produced in diseased tissue. The disease, generally, appears in the beginning of December and become severe during January and February in northern governorates. The infection originates from the ascospores realed from the apothecia. The heavily infected leaves become grayish brown, wither and become over run with white mycelium which spreads to the crown and roots. Later on crown and basal parts of young stem show brown soft rot, which extends downward to the root. Field observations reveal that in dry areas and years, the disease is out of sight and mind.

The fungus has a wide host range, including many species in the composite and crucifer families, which makes control more difficult.

Culture filtrate of Bacillus and Trichoderma isolates resulted in different degrees of reduction to the growth of S.sclerotiorum and the fungus failed to grow on the concentration of 75 and 100 %, respectively.

All the tested bioagents resulted in significant reduction to the germinated sclerotia of S.sclerotiorum and the tested Trichoderma isolates were more efficient (more three times) in reducing the viability of sclerotia than Bacillus isolates.

The tested bioagents, i.e. B.thuringiensis-1 and T.harzianum-3 as well as soil solarization resulted in significant reduction to the severity of clover crown and stem-rot with significant increase to the green forage yield compared with control treatment. In addition, T.harzianum-3 was more efficient than B.thuringiensis-1 and solarization, when each of them was applied alone. However, the combination between solarization and any of the tested bioagents was more efficient in reducing both crown and stem-rot severity and increasing the green forage yield than when each of them was used alone. Moreover, the combination among B.thuringiensis-1 + T.harzianum-3 + solarization was the most efficient in this regard, which no apparent infection by crown and stem-rot were observed and the highest green forage yield was obtained.
Lead Guest Editor
  • Khairy Abdel-Maksoud Mohamed Abada

    Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University , Giza, Egypt

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Latest Articles
  • Authors: Abada K. A., Faten M. Abd-El-Latif, Hala A.M. El-Dakar

    Abstract: Isolation trials from strawberry plants showing mainly wilt symptoms grown at Behera, Ismailia, Kalubia and Giza governorates yielded Fusarium oxysporum , F.solani , Macrophomina phaseolina , Pythium ultimum , Phytophthora cactorum , Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii . Pathogenicity test of the four isolates of F.oxysporum revealed that they caused wilt symptoms and Kalubia isolate was the most virulent one. In addition, inoculating different seven plants, i.e. bean, cucumber, eggplant, sweet pepper, strawberry, tomato and water melon with F. oxysporum isolate of Kalubia governorate indicated that it caused wilt symptoms to strawberry plants only. Therefore, it named Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae Winks & Y.N. Williams. Four isolates of Bacillus spp., i.e. Bacillus coagulans , B.humilus , B.subtils and B. thringiensis and one isolate of Pseudomonas flurescens were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of strawberry plants grown in a field have severe infection by Fusarium wilt were screened for their efficacy against F. o. f.sp. fragariae, in vitro and in vivo. In general, P.flurescens followed by Bacillus subtilis were the most efficient in reducing the linear growth of the pathogenic fungus. Sterilized aqueous filtrate of the tested compost resulted in significant reduction to the linear growth of the tested fungus compared with control treatment. This reduction was gradually increased by increasing it׳s concentration. The combination among the bioagents B.subtilis and P.flurescens, compost and soil solarization resulted in significant reduction to strawberry Fusarium wilt with significant increase to the produced fruits and their total soluble solids (T.S.S.) , either each of them was used alone or in their different combinations, compared with control treatment (infested with the causal fungus).On the other hand, compost was the most efficient in this regard compared with the other three items of disease management, i.e. soil solarization and the bioagents B.subtilis and P.flurescens when each of them was used alone. Moreover, no apparent infection was detected when the bioagents B.subtilis and P.flurescens ,compost and soil solarization were used together and produced fruit yield of T.S.S., to somewhat, similar to control treatment ( uninfested soil with the causal fungus).

    Publication Date: Feb. 1, 2015 Views: Downloads:
  • Author: Azza M. K. Azmy

    Abstract: Two experiments on 10 years old mango trees, Saddeka cv. (high susceptible cultivar) were conducted under field condition during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons for management of powdery mildew at El Adleia district, Belbees county, El-Sharkia governorate. In these trials, mango trees were sprayed with two potassium phosphate salts , calcium chloride ,three commercial growth regulators ,i.e. Agrotone (NAA), Cultar (paclobutrazol) , and Berelex (GA3), the bio-fungicide AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis) , the commercial systemic fungicide Punch (flusilazole) and an alternate among Cultar ( paclobutrazol ), monobasic phosphate and the fungicide Punch. The aforementioned treatments were applied at 14 days intervals during both growing seasons starting at bud flower burst stage till full bloom stage in order to evaluate their efficiency on management mango powdery mildew disease. The obtained results showed that spraying of mango trees ( Saddeka cv.) during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons with any of the tested treatments significantly reduced the severity of powdery mildew with significant increase to the produced fruit yield compared with control treatment.In addition, results of both seasons revealed that alternation spray among Cultar ( paclobutrazol ), mono basic potassium phosphate and the fungicide Punch was the most superior treatment in reducing severity of the disease and producing the highest fruit yield followed by spraying of the fungicide Punch then spraying of mono basic potassium phosphate . Meanwhile, Brelex was of the lowest efficiency treatment in this regard followed by spraying of Agrotone . The other treatments recorded intermediate figures. Control treatment recorded 44.3 % disease severity and produced poor fruit yield.

    Publication Date: Jan. 10, 2015 Views: Downloads:
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Role of Combination Between Bioagents and Solarization on Management of Crown-and Stem-Rot of Egyptian Clover

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